Accurate knee pain diagnosis is the first step in recovering from a knee problem so you can beat your pain and stop it from coming back again.
Here, we will help you to work out what is causing your pain so you treat it effectively and make a quick recovery.
There are three ways to approach knee pain diagnosis:
People often find the simplest place to start with knee pain diagnosis is to think about where their pain is in the knee. While pain can refer to and from other places, thinking about where the majority of the pain is coming from can help with working out what has gone wrong.
The front of the knee is the most common place to get knee pain, commonly referred to as anterior knee pain.
Front knee pain can be caused by a number of knee problems, often related to the kneecap such as Runners Knee and Plica Syndrome.
Visit the Front Knee Pain diagnosis section to find out what problems cause pain here and how to treat them.
Medial knee pain on the inner side of the knee is extremely common.
This is because more force tends to go through the inner side of the knee (side closest to the other leg) which makes it prone to injuries such as MCL tears and meniscus tears.
If your pain is mostly on the inner side of your leg, check out the Medial Knee Pain diagnosis section to find out about the common causes and treatment options.
Pain at the back of the knee is most common in the over 50’s from wear and tear conditions such as arthritis or a Bakers Cyst.
In younger people pain behind the knee tends to be due to knee injuries such as a hyperextended knee or posterior ligament injury.
If your pain is mostly behind your knee, visit the Posterior Knee Pain diagnosis section to learn about the different causes and treatments.
The outer side of the knee is the least common place to have problems.
Lateral knee pain is usually caused by irritation to the structures on the outer side of the knee such as the ITB or lateral meniscus.
If that is where your knee pain is, go to the Lateral Knee Pain diagnosis section to find out about the main causes and how to treat them.
Most cases of calf pain are caused by soft tissue damage from an injury such as a muscle tear.
However in some cases pain in the calf is due to something more serious such as a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) - a blood clot in the leg which requires immediate medical attention.
In the Calf Pain section we look at the most common causes of pain in the calf region, how they vary, how to tell if it's serious and how to treat them.
Huge forces go through the kneecap during everyday activities e.g. stairs and squatting so pain here is common.
Knee cap pain may come on gradually from wear and tear or overuse such as patellar tendonitis, or suddenly from an injury such as a dislocation.
Visit the Knee Cap Pain section to find out more about the different causes, symptoms and treatment options for patella problems.
If you are more a visual person, then check out our knee pain diagnosis chart.
Another important part of knee pain diagnosis is knowing whether the problem started suddenly, which usually indicates a specific knee injury, or whether it came on gradually over time for no specific reason, which usually indicates an underlying knee condition.
A twisted knee is one of the most common knee injuries. This type of injury most commonly occurs during sports or by falling awkwardly. Depending on how the knee twists, it places stress through different structures of the knee so accurate knee pain diagnosis is vital.
Most commonly, it is the ligaments or cartilage that get damaged when the knee over-twists. Ligament injuries tend to cause ongoing problems with stability and the knee may frequently give way even months after the initial injury.
Cartilage knee injuries tend to cause pain and swelling, may limit knee movement and at times can cause the joint to get stuck. In more serious injuries, multiple structures may be damaged.
You can find out more about making an accurate knee pain diagnosis for these different knee injuries and how to treat them in the Twisted Knee section.
Knee hyperextension is a common knee injury in sports where the knee bends back too far, known as genu recurvatum. This can damage the knee joint and surrounding structures and results in pain, swelling and instability.
The knee ligaments are very strong and work together to keep the joint strong, but if the knee is suddenly forced backwards, the knee over-straightens back into hyperextension and the ligaments are put under considerable strain. This may be from a sporting tackle, landing awkwardly from a jump, coming to a sudden stop when running, or even something as simple as someone jumping on your back.
In the hyperextended knee section you can find out exactly what happens to the different joint structures when it hyperextends, help you to make an accurate knee pain diagnosis as to what you have done, the common symptoms, how to treat it and how to make a full recovery.
A gradual onset of knee pain usually indicates an underlying problem that may have been there for a while without you realising. Sometimes, the knee will cope with a developing problem for so long, and then for no obvious reason will start being uncomfortable. It may be knee arthritis, tendonitis, bursitis or wear and tear
In the Common Knee Conditions section we look at common knee problems, what causes them, typical knee symptoms and how to treat them.
Knee injuries are often caused by:
Visit the Common Knee Injuries section to find out more including symptoms and treatment options for different injuries to help you make an accurate knee pain diagnosis.
Often, it is helpful to think about specific knee symptoms when diagnosing knee pain. The pain may be quite widespread or move around, in which case, thinking about how the pain affects you, when you get it and what it stops you from doing might be easier than where the pain is for making a knee pain diagnosis.
There are a whole range of symptoms associated with knee pain that can help you to make an accurate knee pain diagnosis such as:
In the knee symptoms section we look at these and other common symptoms associated with knee problems and what they mean.
The most common reason for knee pain to recur is failure to treat the underlying cause of a problem, usually due to an inaccurate knee pain diagnosis.
For example, let's say your knee is swollen. You can treat the swelling with ice, compression bandages, elevation and exercises and the swelling will most likely start to improve. But chances are, your knee problems will come back again unless you have identified what caused the swelling in the first place and also treated that.
So here we have looked at how to make a knee pain diagnosis by the location or onset of the pain. You can find out everything you need to know about each of these knee problems by using the links above. You may not find the right things first time, but by using these tools, you will get there.
Alternatively, have a look at our knee pain diagnosis chart.
If you have specific symptoms associated with your pain e.g. the pain is sharp or burning, or there is instability or swelling visit the knee symptoms guide.
If you want to know how to get rid of your pain, visit the knee pain treatment section for a variety of treatment options.
But remember, the best way to get an accurate knee injury diagnosis is to see your doctor/physical therapist.
Page Last Updated: 05/10/22
Next Review Due: 05/10/24