Knee pain and popping is a common problem. It's that tell-tale snap, crackle, pop making your knees sound like a bowl of rice krispies.
Many people find they hear strange noises such as knee clicking when they do things such a squatting down or getting up from kneeling.
In many cases, it is more of a nuisance than a real problem, but in some cases, it may be a sign of an underlying problem in the knee.
Knee popping in itself is very common and can be caused by a number of things. It may be as simple as little bubbles of gas popping in the knee or indicate a problem in the soft tissues such as a ligament tear.
Another term commonly used for popping in the knee is "crepitus", which essentially means a noisy joint, whether it be popping, clicking, cracking or snapping.
Knee popping and clicking can be caused by a number of things. It may be something simple like the ligaments catching on a bony lump and "snapping" back in to place or gas bubbles popping.
But in some cases, knee popping is linked to a more serious injury such as ligament or cartilage tear.
Here we look at the top 8 causes of knee popping and how to treat them.
Knee clicking and popping noises in the knee usually fall into one of three categories:
1) Pain-Free Popping Knee: Popping noises in the knee often occur without any pain, in which case they are nothing to worry about
2) Painful Popping Noise at time of Injury: Sometimes when the knee is injured e.g. twisting awkwardly, there is a sudden, loud "pop" at the same time indicating damage to part of the knee
3) Recurrent Painful Popping Noises not Caused by an Injury: Knee pain and popping can come on gradually with no obvious cause. It may happen sporadically or frequently depending on the cause.
If knee popping occurs without any associated pain, it is usually due to either a build up of gas bubbles inside the joint which burst, or ligaments/tendons snapping over the joint. There is generally nothing to worry about with this type of knee crepitus.
Changes in joint pressure can cause tiny bubbles of gas to slowly form in joints. When these gas bubbles burst quickly, they make a popping sound, in a similar way to when you pop bubble-wrap.
The technical term for this is cavitation. There is no harm in this case of knee popping no pain, and the myth that it makes you prone to arthritis is unfounded.
Ligaments and tendons are soft tissues that are positioned around all the joints in our body. Sometimes when you move a joint (e.g. your knee), a ligament or tendon may stretch slightly as it goes over a small bony lump and then snaps back into place making a knee clicking sound.
Again, there is no harm with this type of knee clicking if there is no pain, and despite what people often say, it doesn’t make you more prone to knee problems.
Was there is a loud "pop" as you twisted or bent your knee? Knee popping pain at the time of injury usually indicates damage to one of the ligaments.
The two most common ligament injuries that produce knee pain and popping are ACL (Anterior Cruciate Ligament) and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) injuries, usually caused by twisting the knee awkwardly.
What is It? The ACL (the ligament which sits in the centre of the knee) gets over-stretched and tears, either fully or partially. Sudden knee pain and popping at the time of injury usually indicates a complete tear of the ACL.
How Does It Happen? The ACL typically gets damaged when there is a hard blow to the side of the knee (e.g. sporting tackle), sudden twisting or deceleration, or when the leg bends backwards too far
Symptoms? Approximately 50% of ACL tears are accompanied by a popping sound at the knee associated with immediate swelling and pain. The other classic sign of an ACL tear is the knee repeatedly giving way. The knee pain and popping usually only occurs at the time of the injury, there isn't typically any recurrent knee clicking or popping afterwards
Treatment? ACL Injury treatment will depend on the extent of the tear but usually involves exercises, knee braces and/or surgery
You can find out loads more in the ACL Injuries section including information on rehab, surgery and how to prevent ligament injuries.
What is It? The Medial Collateral Ligament on the inner side of the knee gets over-stretched and tears
How Does it Happen? The MCL usually gets torn when a force gores through the outside of the knee e.g. tackle, or sudden twisting e.g. skiing
Symptoms? Typical symptoms of an MCL tear include inner knee pain and popping/tearing sensation, swelling, instability, difficulty bending the leg
Treatment? MCL tears are usually treated with a combination of knee exercises, tubigrip, knee braces and friction massage
You can find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatment options in the MCL Injury
Sometimes knee pain and popping develops over time, without any obvious injury. In these instances, the knee clicking/popping tends to happen frequently and is usually due to one of these conditions:
What is It? A tear in the meniscus, the special cartilage that lines the joint.
What Causes the Noises? When the meniscus tears, small fragments of it can catch in the knee as it moves which results in knee clicking
Associated Symptoms: knee pain, locking (knee gets stuck), swelling
Frequency? Knee pain and popping from a meniscus tear tends to come and go, rather than happening all the time as the torn fragment moves around the joint
Treatment? Exercises or surgery depending on type and severity of tear
Visit the Meniscus Tear section to find out more about this common cause of knee pain and popping.
What is It? Osteoarthritis is wear and tear of the cartilage that lines the knee joint accompanied by the formation of bone spurs, known as osteophytes
What Causes the Noises? As the cartilage thins, the joint surface becomes rough and friction occurs between the bones resulting in crepitus and knee popping pain.
Who Does it Affect? Arthritis is the most common cause of knee pain and popping in people over the age of 50 and develops gradually over time
Associated Symptoms: Toothache type pain, stiffness (particularly in the morning) and swelling
Frequency? With arthritis, knee pain and popping, clicking and crepitus tend to be persistent rather than coming and going
Treatment? Exercises, knee brace, injections, surgery
Find out everything you need to know about this causes of a popping knee in the Arthritis section.
What is It? Chondromalacia Patella is irritation and inflammation of the cartilage lining the back of the patella (kneecap)
What Causes the Noises? The friction between the back of the kneecap and the underlying femur (thigh bone) seen in chondromalacia patella can cause knee pain and popping
Who Does it Affect? Healthy, often sporty adolescents and young adults. Chondromalacia Patella is more common in women than men
Frequency? It tends to be a more constant problem. The knee clicking/crepitus can usually be felt
as well as heard when you put your hand over the front of the knee and
bend and straighten the knee joint
Treatment? Exercises, knee strap, taping, ice, medication
Find out more about the causes, symptoms and treatment options in the Chondromalacia Patella section.
What is It? Runners Knee is a problem in how the kneecap moves which causes an ill-defined ache around the knee aka anterior knee pain or patellofemoral pain syndrome. It doesn't just affect Runners though!
What Causes the Noises? In Runners Knee, the patella rubs against the femur which is often associated with a grinding sensation when the knee moves
Who Does it Affect? It is usually worse with prolonged activity e.g. running, coming downstairs or after prolonged inactivity e.g. office workers
Frequency? Knee pain and popping tends to come and go with Runners Knee
Treatment? Exercises, orthotics, ice, rest
Find out everything you need to know in the Runners Knee section.
Treatment for knee pain and popping will depend on the underlying cause of the noises, but will generally include strengthening exercises, physical therapy and possibly wearing a knee brace. In some rare cases, surgery may be required.
You can find out loads more about these common causes of knee pain and popping including the best treatment options for each, by using the links above.
And remember, if you have knee clicking but it doesn’t cause you any pain, don’t worry. It is usually entirely normal and nothing to worry about. You may find that strengthening your leg muscles actually eliminates the noise – see the strengthening exercises section for ideas on where to start.
Knee Popping When Extending: Knee popping when you straighten your knee is usually due to gas bubbles (not usually painful), plica syndrome or patellofemoral pain syndrome.
Knee Popping and Pain When Bending: If you get knee popping and pain when bending your knee e.g. squatting down, it is most likely due to a problem with the knee cartilage such as a meniscus tear or chondromalacia patella.
Knee Popping When Extending And Bending: If you get knee pain and popping with both knee flexion and extension, it is likely that there is damage to the joint surface such as cartilage damage or knee arthritis. If there is no pain, it is likely to be gas bubbles popping.
Knee Popping With Twisting: Sudden knee pain and popping when you twist is usually doe to a knee ligament injury, most often an ACL injury and/or MCL tear. If the knee swells up or feels unstable after hearing a pop as you twisted, seek medical attention immediately.
Knee Popping When Walking: Almost all the possible causes of knee popping that we've looked at here can cause knee pain and popping when walking, be it arthritis, runners knee, cartilage tear or ligament injury. There will usually be other symptoms associated here that will lead to a clearer knee pain diagnosis.
Knee Popping No Pain: If there is no pain with your knee popping, chances are it is a simple case of gas bubbles bursting inside the joint which is completely harmless. Keeping active and strengthening the knee muscles can sometimes help to reduce the frequency of knee popping.
In most cases, knee pain and popping will settle down, but how long this takes will depend on what is causing the popping noise. Soft tissue injuries usually heal in 6-12 weeks. Most people notice their knee popping settles down within 3 months of working on knee strengthening exercises.
If there is no pain with the popping, then it is highly likely the popping noises will continue as there isn't a mechanical problem to be fixed. Bit rest assured, there is no increased risk of knee problems later in life.
In most cases, knee popping is not a serious problem, it is simply bubbles of gas popping, or tendons snapping over small, bony lumps.
However, knee popping can be serious if there is a sudden popping noise from the knee at the time of injury, which typically indicates a significant injury to one of the knee ligaments.
Many people complain of popping, cracking, or crunching noises when they squat down. The technical term for this is cavitation or crepitus, which simply put means "joint noise". Caused by a change in pressure inside a joint, gas bubbles of carbon dioxide form, and when they burst, you get the familiar cracking sound.
If your knee feels like it locks up sometimes, you may find that releasing the pressure in the joint helps. This is only appropriate if there is no knee pain and you have not recently injured your knee.
The best way to diagnose your particular symptoms is to see a doctor but here I have shared with you the more common causes for knee pain and popping. Always see your doctor for a thorough examination to rule out any serious injury if you have knee pain and popping.
Page Last Updated: 25/04/19
Next Review Due: 25/04/21
1. Clinics In Orthopedic Surgery Journal: Noise around the Knee. February 2018
2. WikiHow: How to Keep Your Knees from Popping and Cracking. July 2018
3. Physical Therapy In Sport: Implications of knee crepitus to the overall clinical presentation of women with and without patellofemoral pain. September 2018
4. Musculoskeletal Science and Practice: People's beliefs about the meaning of crepitus in patellofemoral pain and the impact of these beliefs on their behaviour: A qualitative study. April 2017